Salomatin Aleksey Yur'evich, Doctor of historical sciences, doctor of juridical sciences, professor, head of sub-department of state and law theory and political science, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia); corresponding member of the International academy of comparative law, head of the Center of Comparative Legal Policy of a regional branch of the Russian Association of European Research, E-mail: email@example.com
Background. Federalism is relatively young and fundamentally new in statestudying. It needs constant rethinking, especially in the era of globalization, challenging the state and state sovereignty. This is all the more true of Russian federalism, which has traditionally been distinguished by considerable originality. It is extremely useful to correlate the vectors of development of Russian federalism with the global trends of state and legal development.
Materials and methods. The article widely uses the comparative historical, comparative state-governing and comparative legal method, which allows us to look at the problem of Russian federalism in all its strategic depth and geopolitical breadth. The author actively uses the scientific achievements of the Penza scientific and pedagogical school, which deals with the study of federative relations.
Results. Comparative analysis shows that interest in the ideas of federalism arises in Russia in the XIX century. - not later than in Western Europe. However, it does not receive practical consequences as a result of the success of the Russian Empire. Only at the beginning of the twentieth century. we can talk about the presence of certain prerequisites for federalization. Specific reasons of a subjective nature make themselves felt only in connection with the collapse of the empire, the civil war and foreign intervention. The Bolsheviks succeeded in creating an extremely efficient, highly centralized federal state that is radically different from many of the usual federations. This, by the way, helped to avoid blood during the collapse of the USSR.
Conclusions. There is a continuity between Soviet and post-Soviet federalism. "Parade of sovereignties" in the 1990s was contrary to the global trends towards the centralization of federations and was stopped on time. After 2008-2010, a new stage has come when there is a search for adequate management decisions in the conditions of the new phase of postmodernization and international turbulence. They require a reasonable partial correction both in the direction of the revitalization of the work of the highest state body of an integrative nature, and in the economic specialization of the regions. It is desirable to expand lawmaking in the regions and foster the federal civic culture.
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